Liu Shipei's academic framework was deeply rooted in both traditional Chinese scholarship, learning centered around his familial heritage and the Yangzhou School, and Western intellectual traditions, emphasizing evolutionism and logic. These two dimensions shaped Liu Shipei's academic thought, and the belief in the mutual influence of Western and Chinese culture significantly impacted his research methodologies. During the late Qing and early Republican eras, Liu viewed scholarship as a tool of statecraft and integrated scholarship into political discourse. This process gave rise to a utilitarian approach to academic pursuits and the “idea-evidence-idea” model of writing. Additionally, Liu Shipei synthesized Ling Tingkan's and Ruan Yuan's theories on parallel prose, providing an in-depth exposition on the Yangzhou School's theory of parallel prose. By incorporating Western nominalism and evolutionism he refined the orthodox understanding of parallel prose unveiling its distinctiveness. As the integrator of parallel prose theory from the Yangzhou School in the Qing dynasty and a fervent advocate in modern times, Liu played a pivotal role in transitioning the study of parallel prose from tradition to modernity.


Liu Shipei, the Yangzhou School, traditional Chinese learning, the concept of Chinese-originated Western culture, parallel prose

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